Mary Magdalene, Metaphorical Tower and the Good News
In addition to his twelve disciples Jesus had a group of devoted women followers. Mary Magdalene stands out by the number of times her name is mentioned in the Gospels. She’s the first among all the disciples to acknowledge the resurrected body of Christ. Throughout history her image has been popular in art, celebrated by gnostic advocates and recently praised by the magisterium. To this day there is no theological or academic consensus on her identity. Since the turn of this millennium, tailwinds are stirring up her Spirit. Her role in spreading the Good News is at last recognized, conferring upon her a rightful status similar to Peter. The disciple who was once called Simon whom Jesus gave the metaphorical name of rock. Similarly, Mary’s surname of Magdalene has an etymology that is linked to the Hebrew word migdal, meaning tower. The literary device that the narratives apply to Simon is here applied to Mary. Both are metaphorical attributes: Simon as rock and Mary as tower. The Gospels reveal that Jesus uses parables and metaphors in his teachings. They are central to his message. As such, how essential are literary devices to revelation and the underlying dynamic of the “truth”?

Post-Modern Perspective of Myth

Superman: A Mythical American
When I first introduced the idea that Superman was a mythical hero in 1992, the notion came as a surprise to many. Over time it became acceptable to most. Today we can safely say that mythology plays a similar role in American culture and ideology that it did in ancient Greece or Rome.

Culture, Ideology and Religion

Religio and American Civil Religion
With this essay I propose a reassessment of American civil religion developed by Robert N. Bellah. The recent Religious Right’s political activism has somewhat changed the landscape of American civil religion, inaugurating a state of religious and political exceptionalism. Shattering the idea of a cultural and political inclusiveness inherent in civil religion. As a result of the changes, a reevaluation was deemed appropriate. To do so we examine Roman religio as a case study of civil religion.

Media, Internet and Spirituality

The Historical Development of the Mythical Santa Claus
Every year as winter sets in, people go through a yearly ritual called the Holidays. For some, Christmas is a celebration of the birth of Jesus, a religious event. For others, it’s a secular season of gift giving and receiving. For most, it’s a consumer regimented event. Weeks prior December 25th, the mainstream media revives images of a mythical Santa Claus to set in motion a festive mood that will entice consumer spending. In most minds Santa Claus is an American icon, the result of newspapers’ fictional alteration of Saint Nicholas and the contribution of advertising that framed the image of the Santa as we know it today. Yet only since 1773 has he been known as Santa Claus and perceived as a secular icon rather than a Saint. This beckons the question: how did this transformation occur? Is it truly a secular transition or a market driven substitution of a sacred figure?

Modern aspects of Myth

Washington National Monument
A step by step re-enactment of the building and inauguration of the giant obelisk. The erection of the Washington National Monument stands as a visible sign that celebrates the mythical foundation of its founding Father, revealing in the process how myth and politics blend-in together to generate an ideological consolidation of power.


New Testament Tradition

Apostle Paul’s Spiritual Experience: A Universal Manner of Being
No matter if one is religious or agnostic, Paul’s letters are compelling pieces of literature. Part confession, part exhortation, and part reprimand, his epistles are a gripping expression of a call to duty in the face of what the Apostle perceived to be an eminent end of days. Although the world did not cease to exist as he expected, the destruction of Jerusalem and its Second Temple eight years after his death in 70 AD, could very well be considered the end of the world for the Jewish people. The political context that led to Paul’s execution in Rome foreshadowed his dread about the future. To this day his landmark epistle to the Romans remains his most important legacy. Overall, his letters disclose a man set apart for a mission. His calling initiated an identity crisis directly related to his Jewish religious background as a man born in Tarsus, living in a Greek cultural environment, and subject to Roman political control. The context of Paul’s vocation reveals a religious disintegration and the unraveling dynamic of a spiritual experience

Old Testament Tradition

Book Job: A Vision of God
This essay is among the more popular essays on this site. It outlines the principle of the Lord-victim. Job who at the beginning of the story was God’s preferred character, is suddenly and for no reason, cast out of favor. Our hero who once at the top of system that he controlled is now an outcast and rejected from that world. As a pariah, he sees the system as an outsider and is able to perceive the whole reality of lordship and victim.